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A Water / Leak Sensor is ideal for detecting the presence of water on a floor or in a false ceiling. Leaded wires can be used to reach areas far away from the sensing circuit since you are just measuring impedance of the liquid.  Tap water tends to conduct at several 100kohm so it’s very easy to cover a wide area with a few of these sensors circuits.  With this circuit it’s possible to create a water detector powered by 2 AA batteries (batteries circuit not shown).
Wireless temperature and humidity sensing is desirable for environmental comfort. Controlling and monitoring HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) units and other wireless sensor networks allows for switching of devices (on or off), and regulating the flow of a air transfer as needed to maintain the correct temperature.
Ambient light photo sensors detect the amount of light present within an environment, sending a signal proportional to the amount of light detected to control backlighting and basic on/off light control.

This specific reference design utilizes a dual-purpose IC from Silicon Labs which offers ambient light sensing and proximity sensing capabilities in a single device. This exceptionally small integrated sensor provides ease of implementation as it eliminates the design effort required for separate solutions.
Proximity Sensors are able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. They are ideal for devices like parking sensors, ground warning systems and close human body proximity sensing applications.
Microphones convert sound in the form of acoustic pressure fluctuations into electrical signals. Applications include glass breakage detectors, knock sensors, and noise canceling systems.